FRM Standards

The concept of Fiducial Reference Measurements (FRM) has been established by the Sentinel-3 Validation Team (S3VT) as: “The suite of independent ground measurements that provide the maximum Return-On-Investment (ROI) for a satellite mission by delivering, to users, the required confidence in data products, in the form of independent validation results and satellite measurement uncertainty estimation, over the entire end-to-end duration of a satellite mission.”

The Committee for Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) defines Calibration as: “the process of quantitatively defining a system’s responses to known, controlled signal inputs”.

Validation, on the other hand, is “the process of assessing, by independent means, the quality [uncertainty] of the data products derived from those system outputs”.

The SeRAC project implements the requirements set by the FRM4ALT project ( on an operational basis. 

Funded by the EU and ESA